Posters 2

The dynamics of fading and afterimages in contemporary art

Rob van Lier and Arno Koning

We studied artworks of the Dutch contemporary painter Roland Schimmel whose work appeals to various low-level visual processes like Troxler fading and afterimage formation. The artworks at Schimmels' exhibitions have been described with terms like a 'hallucinogenic experience', a 'dreamworld', and a 'perceptual machine'. Many of Schimmel's paintings are relatively large and comprise vague, near isoluminant colors, with additional high-contrast black disks. Here we present an eye-tracking study showing that the appreciation of these artworks depends on eye-movements. The black disks attract the observers' attention and guide eye-fixations and saccades, causing visual changes that turn the static display into a dynamic piece of art. When the eyes fixate on a disk, the colors in the periphery tend to disappear from awareness (due to troxler fading), whereas the immediate surrounding of the disk is perceived with a glowing afterimage halo (due to microsaccades). When the eyes make a saccade, the faded colors in the periphery reappear, whereas the afterimage of the previously fixated black disk suppresses the weakly colored background at the new location. The painter has found an intuitive way to control and guide eye movements in order to trigger an intriguing artful perceptual play of fading and afterimage effects.

Listening to paintings

Arno Koning and Rob Van Lier

We studied appreciation and eye movements while watching paintings and hearing music simultaneously. The presented paintings were either from William Turner (landscape sceneries) or from Wassily Kandinsky (abstract art). The music was either classical (e.g. Pastorale symphony 1st movement by Beethoven) or Jazz (e.g. Move by Miles Davis). Considering the two different painting styles and the two different music styles we first hypothesized that the crossmodal conditions could be labeled as congruent or incongruent. That is, we hypothesized that landscape sceneries would better fit with classical music, whereas abstract art would better fit with jazz music. In a judgement task we have combined 10 Turner paintings and 10 Kandinsky painting with either classical music or jazz music. Sixty observers judged the fit between painting and music on a 7 point scale. The results clearly approved this hypothesis. More in particular, observers judged the incongruent conditions to be rather odd. This was the case for both the Turner-Jazz combinations and the Kandinsky-Classical-Music combinations. We further report a subsequent eye tracking experiment in which we investigate in what way congruency affects looking behaviour (in terms of number of fixations and saccade length).

Does art shape our perceptual world? A study with visual illusions.

Silvia Savazzi, Chiara Bagattini and Chiara Mazzi

We have recently described [Beck et al., 2010, Journal of Vision, 10(7), 965] a new illusion such that the taller of two equally wide stimuli looks thinner, and conversely that the thinner of two equally tall stimuli looks taller. Here, we asked people with and without artistic abilities to adjust the size of one of two stimuli in order to match their height. If proficiency in drawing shapes the way we perceive the world, we would expect the artists to be less sensitive to visual illusion than controls. We tested 14 subjects with strong drawing proficiency and 13 control subjects with no drawing proficiency. The participants were asked to adjust the height of two stimuli made in a such a way that they were never large the same. The stimuli were either bodies or rectangles. We found that the illusion was stronger [F(1,25)=22.206, p<0.001] with bodies (3.65%) than with rectangles (1.73%), in line with our previous results. More importantly, as predicted, we found that artists (2.02%) were reliably [F(1,25)=110.820, p<0.001] less sensitive to visual illusion than controls (3.36%). Our results show that, differently from controls, artists can judge the height of an object regardless of its width.

Structural regularities in paintings: correspondence to natural scenes and human visual processing

April Schweinhart and Edward Essock

Structural content in natural scenes is biased in spatial scale (1/frequency) and orientation (H>V>>Oblique) (Simoncelli & Olhausen, 2001, Annu. Rev. Neurosci., 24, 1193-1216 ; Hansen & Essock, 2004, JOV, 4(12), 1044-1060). Neural encoding appears to 'undo' these biases thereby whitening the image (e.g. Essock et al., 2009, JOV, 9(1), 1-15). Recent studies have compared the statistical regularities of natural scenes to those of paintings (e.g., Graham & Field, 2008, Perception. 37, 1341-1352). Presumably, art emphasizes structure that is de-emphasized by the neural biases so that the art looks 'right' when viewed. Although priorthese studies have shown a similar bias of scale in art, the bias of orientation hasn't been clearly addressed. To explore the relationship between human processing of orientation and the oriented structure in paintings we have compared museum paintings of landscapes and portraits to a random sample of photos of natural scenes and faces. In a second study, we commissioned 15 artists to paint a scene as accurately as possible, allowing for the first time a direct comparison of content in paintings and an image of exactly the same scene. Through these investigations we have determined that painters overemphasize anisotropies found in real- world images in their paintings.

Neural Correlates of Object Indeterminacy in Art Compositions

Alumit Ishai

Indeterminate paintings invoke an unusual state of awareness in which form and color become dissociated from the semantic meaning. We used representational, indeterminate and abstract paintings to study object recognition. Our behavioral studies show that subjects identified familiar objects in all paintings, albeit with longer response latencies for abstract compositions. Using fMRI, we found that all paintings evoked activation in a distributed cortical network. Representational paintings activated the temporoparietal junction, which mediates the binding of visual features and spatial locations, whereas abstract compositions evoked imagery-related activation. A short training session on object recognition in cubist paintings resulted in significant behavioral and neural changes. Trained subjects recognized more familiar objects in more paintings and showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any objects, and their longer response latencies were correlated with activation in the fronto-parietal regions. Thus, in order to resolve the object indeterminacy, subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used mental imagery and contextual associations. Our studies provide empirical evidence for the proactive brain framework and for Gombrich's suggestion that we use 'schemas' (i.e., stored structures of knowledge), when we view works of art, in order to form expectations.

Chaotic Colour Sequences and their Application to Colour Illuminations

Kenkichi Fukurotani

Chaotic dynamics were described by a set of, at least, three first-order differential equations with respect to state variables. The three state variables span a three-dimensional phase space. The solution of differential equations represents a trajectory in the phase space. Mapping the three state variables to three primary colours of red(R), green(G) and blue(B), the phase space becomes a colour space and the trajectory represents a chaotic colour sequence. The trajectory never crosses over itself though it remains within a limited space. Therefore, the chaotic colour sequence never exhibits the same colour as before. I implemented chaotic colour illuminator with R, G and B LEDs and a microcontroller chip that solved chaotic systems of differential equations in real-time. I examined chaotic colour sequences from 60 chaotic systems. As a rule, impression of chaotic colour sequences differed from that of random colour sequence: smoothly changing colour of chaotic sequences had periodicity to some extent but unpredictability as well, bringing comfortable rhythmic feeling and occasional surprise of unexpected colour appearance into observers. However, each chaotic colour sequence had inherent nature. Selection of an appropriate chaotic system was important to design the chaotic colour illumination for a specific scene.

The 3D stereoscopic world from the spectator's scope: Adjusting 3D content from pattern of systematic errors

Cyril Vienne, Laurent Blondé, Didier Doyen and Pascal Mamassian

When observers are asked to match the depth of an object according to its width, they often report systematic errors that are related to the distance plane of reference that observers took into account to make estimations of depth (Johnston, 1991, Vision Research). As a matter of fact, spectators of 3D stereoscopic sequences will tend to overestimate the depth of nearest objects while the depth of far objects will be underestimated. This phenomenon creates a serious problem in that the veracity of 3D shape is distorted when one attempts to restore the metrics of a captured 3D world. As such, the main goal of this study is to investigate whether Observers may have a more vivid experience of depth when the 3D content is adjusted according to their intrinsic properties, and more specifically on their accommodation state. Observers thus judged the naturalness of stereoscopic static or moving scenes that were submitted to various transformations of the disparity map. We discuss the results we obtained from the psychophysical experiments and from the subjective reports of naturalness. The present study emphasizes the link between the phenomenology of perceiving depth and the need to adapt content according to display limitations.

Psychophysical scaling of circle size with and without depth cues

Marcelo Costa, Adsson Magalhaes and Balázs Vince Nagy

We used the magnitude estimation to obtain the apparent size of circles under two different experimental conditions: with a black background and with a line gradient to evoke depth perception. Twenty-two subjects with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity (mean age= 21.3yrs; SD= 1.6) were tested. The procedure consisted of two gray circles luminance of 40 cd / m2, 10 degrees apart from each other. On the left side was the reference circle (VA of 1.1 cpd) in which was assigned an arbitrary value of 50. The subjects' task was to judge the size of the circles appearing in the right side of the monitor screen assigning the number proportional to the changed size, relative to the reference circle. Seven different sizes (0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 cpd at 50 cm) were presented in each condition. Our results have shown a high correlation for circle size and depth conditions (R= 0.987 and R= 0.997) between the logs of the stimuli and the subject response. The exponents obtained were 0.69 and 1.09, respectively. The circle size was judged subjectively closer to the physical size in the depth condition that in the condition free of other visual cues.

Assessment of the Rule of Thirds in Photographs Taken by Amateurs

Seyed Ali Amirshahi, Christoph Redies and Joachim Denzler

For evaluating the aesthetic quality of an image, most proposed metrics include an assessment of the rule of thirds as one of their most important features [Li et al, 2009, IEEE J Sel Topics Signal Process, 3, 236-252] [Datta et al, 2006, ECCV, 3, 288-301]. Previously, we introduced a new method to assess whether images follow the rule of thirds. We showed that, on average, aesthetic paintings by famous painters and photographs by professional photographers do not follow this rule. In this paper, we assess the rule of thirds in 2 databases of photographs taken by amateur photographers. The first database consisted of 274 randomly selected photographs from the photo-sharing website; these photographs were tagged as aesthetic. The second database consisted of over 700 images taken by one of the authors who is an amateur photographer. Results were compared to various other image databases of aesthetic or non-aesthetic images that do or do not follow the rule of thirds. The results show that, like professional photographs, amateur photographers do not follow the rule of thirds when taking photographs.

When do people aesthetically evaluate visual symmetry?

Alexis Makin, Moon Wilton, Anna Pecchinenda and Marco Bertamini

Philosophers and artists have long been believed that symmetry and beauty are fundamentally related. We tested whether symmetry is automatically evaluated, or whether positive emotional reactions to symmetry are confined to conditions of deliberate aesthetic contemplation. In our affective priming experiments, we presented symmetrical or random patterns, then a positive or negative word. Participants had to categorize the words as quickly as possible. We found that symmetrical pattern facilitated responding to the positive words and vice versa. However, this priming effect only manifested when participants overtly attended to regular-random dimension. Comparable results were obtained from more behavioural experiments using the implicit association test. Finally, in another series of experiments, we recorded electrical activity in the Zygomaticus Major (ZM, the muscle responsible for smiling), while people viewed and classified symmetrical or random patterns. Symmetrical patterns produced greater ZM activity, even though people were not required to evaluate the images. In summary, multiple behavioural and elecrophysiological experiments provide a clear answer to the original research question: symmetry is emotionally evaluated whenever people overtly attend to it and label it, but not when attention is directed to some other attribute of the stimulus.

Da Vinci's La Bella Principessa and the uncatchable smile

Michael Pickard and Alessandro Soranzo

In 1998, a little known picture was sold for a modest sum in a New York saleroom and in so doing attracted the attention of the art world. Painstaking analysis by the Oxford art historian Martin Kemp and others, revealed it to be the work of Leonardo Da Vinci (Kemp & Cotte, 2010, Hodder & Stoughton). Given the considerable interest in La Bella Principessa, it is perhaps surprising now to suggest that it may contain an illusion. The Principessa mouth appears to change shape dependant on whether it is viewed in foveal or peripheral vision and this in turn changes the facial expression and ambience, generating an 'uncatchable smile' experience. Experimental data showed that the uncatchable smile experience can be obtained also by approaching the picture from distance and, when a digital version of the picture was used, by either blurring or pixelating the image. The effect is similar, and perhaps stronger, to that described by the Harvard neurobiologist Margaret Livingstone, in her account of the Mona Lisa's enigmatic smile (Livingstone, 2002, Abrahams).The question arises as to whether Leonardo deliberately used such an artefact as a subtle embellishment to the overall aesthetic - after all, who can resist an uncatchable smile?

Does drawing faces make you a super-expert of faces? An investigation of face perception and recognition abilities in visual artists

Christel Devue, Catherine Barsics and Serge Brédart

Face recognition abilities might constitute a continuum with developmental prosopagnosia and outstanding face recognition capacity at each extreme. 'Super-recognizers' display better face processing abilities than controls and show a larger face inversion effect (FIE) [Russell et al, 2009, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16 (2), 252-257]. Hence, FIE could reflect a specific visual experience/expertise with faces compared to other objects rather than a qualitatively different kind of processing. In this experiment we tested face processing abilities of visual artists who practice portraiture, as well as more general visual perception and recognition skills, in order to contribute to the long-lasting debate about a possible special status of faces. If some special processing faces benefit from is due to expertise, artists' practice might lead to better perceptual and possibly recognition performance with upright faces compared to controls, while increasing the FIE. Because they need to take both configural and featural information into account to reach a satisfactory likeness, artists might also make a differential use of these facial cues compared to controls. Preliminary data indicate that face processing performance might indeed be linked to perceptual expertise with faces.

Lighting for artworks: subjective evaluation of different light sources

Elisabetta Baldanzi, Alessandro Farini and Giancarlo Castoldi

For this experiment, made at the National Institute of Optics Lab located in the 'Opificio delle Pietre Dure'of Florence (the main italian centre for restoration of artworks) we have selected 12 subjects with no specific professional characteristics, ranging from 12 to 45 years old ('normal subjects') and 5 subjects, experts of arts and restorers at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure di Firenze ('expert subjects'). The aim of the experiment is to evaluate the preferences of the selected subjects exposed to different types of illuminating techniques of an Artwork. We selected three different paintings, two from renaissance (Raffaello's Madonna del Granduca and Anonymous 'Madonna del Velo', one was contemporary (Rasario's 'L'assoluto della Luce'). The four light sources available were a full spectrum modulated light with LED sources, a projectors with AR111 halogen sources, a projectors with a standard LED 3200 K and an illuminators equipped with 2 LED PCBs. In all the situations illuminance was the same (270 Lux). The three artworks were placed in turn over a dedicated easel in the Laboratory of INO-CNR. Each artwork was illuminated sequentially by the selected illuminators. Each subject declared his/her own ranking of preferences among the proposed illuminations. The preferred illuminators by the 'normal' subjects was the two innovative LED sources instead of the traditional ones; The subjects appreciated the impressive effect produced by the illuminators with LED more with the figurative artworks than the abstract one; 'Expert' subjects do not show a significant preference in relation to a particular type of lighting source, but seem more orientated toward the 'traditional' lamps. This could suggest a dichotomy between the lighting for 'normal' subjects (with emphasis on color and appearance) and for 'expert' subjects (with emphasis on a philological approach)

Effect of color and brightness on perception of beauty in fractal images

Gwan Ho Lee, Woo Hyun Jung and Seungbok Lee

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of basic visual property on perception of beauty using fractal images. To control the influence of prior experience on perception of beauty, fractal images were used as stimuli. Correlation coefficient between beauty scores of color images and gray images was calculated to investigate the effect of color on beauty perception. In addition, brightness effect on perception of beauty was examined via manipulating brightness of images into 3 levels. The results showed that beauty scores of color fractal images were lower than those of gray images and correlation between them were very low. In brightness condition, the darkest images were perceived as the least beautiful, but change of brightness had no impact on beauty perception. These results suggest that beauty perception could be influenced directly by basic visual property such as color, shape, brightness and contrast. Also, these results indicate that perceived beauty would be decreased when combination of basic visual property exceeds a certain level. 'This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government(NRF-2010-371-H00008).'

How long does it take to determine that you like a painting?

Andrey Chetverikov

The study of time taken to make various judgments has been shown to provide valuable insights into the nature of those judgments. Yet little is known about the temporal dimension of aesthetic judgments. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between judgment time, exposure time, and tasks given to observers. I expected that the more difficult is the tasks given and the shorter is the exposure time, the longer it would take to make a judgment. Subjects (n = 30) evaluated the paintings presented for 1,5,10,15, or 20 seconds using either left-to-right or right-to-left 6 point 'like - dislike' scale. They also determined the type (landscape or portrait) of painting and whether it is familiar to them. Half of the subjects were also asked to determine the period when the painting was created. The results show that the evaluation time was longer for moderate judgments, regardless of the exposure time and scale direction. The additional task increased judgment time, but only when the left-to-right scale was used. The results suggest that the aesthetic judgment is related to the tasks given to the observers, but this relationship can be moderated by amount of cognitive control.

Banksy's graffiti art reveals insight into surface completion processes

Nava Rubin

Kanizsa's square may be the best known example of perceptual surface completion: a whole shape is perceived where only fragments of its bounding contour are present. But surface completion also plays a major role in perceiving whole objects from two-tone images (eg, Mooney faces), since lighter facets of the objects often merge with the background (or darker facets, for dark backgrounds). For Kanizsa surfaces, it has been long known that placing the inducers on textured backgrounds sometimes eliminates, and at other times enhances, perceptual completion (Ramachandran, Ruskin, Cobb, Rogers- Ramachandran and Tyler, 1994). Banksy's art reveals similar effects in two-tone images. To minimize on-site production time, Banksy renders his famous graffiti objects (eg, the rat) by stencil, spreading single-color paint over pre-fabricated templates. What comes next reveals the artist's insight into perceptual processing: When the wall is smooth or finely-textured, Banksy leaves the regions previously covered by the stencil unpainted, relying on perceptual completion to segregate them from the (identically colored/textured) background. But when the wall has large-scale or continues texture, such as bricks -- the very cases when perceptual completion breaks down -- Banksy takes the extra time to fill-in the unpainted surfaces with another color.

Video and digital modeling for the representation of the Philips pavilion's project by Le Corbusier.

Gabriella Curti

With this contribution I would like to call attention to Philips pavilion's project, a unique synthesis between art and technique. In this, designed by Le Corbusier, the visitor felt the experience of a space 'continuous' and involvement in a series of 'visual events', unusual at that time. I believe that is extremely important to study today, with the possibilities offered by the 'digital modeling', the novelty that Le Corbusier in 1958 wished to present to the International Exhibition of Bruxelles. He called it his 'electronic poem' where light, colour, sound and rhythm would have to involve the viewer in a unique and unrepeatable event. The creativity of Le Corbusier expressed in particular in the 'optical scene' which involved the use of three major components: the use of projection film (écran), the use of layers of bright color (ambiances) and the projection of overlapping geometric shapes in black and white (tri-trous). The combination could produce in the public over the amazement connected to a wonderful intense emotional strain. Through digital modeling and the use of video I would propose the architectural space and the other suggestions made by Le Corbusier, who worked on the representation of shapes, colours and sounds.

The effect of valence and arousal on aesthetic preference: A developmental perspective

Dragan Jankovic and Ana Orlic

Although the role of emotion in aesthetic preference has been extensively studied so far, previous studies have rarely considered the combined effect of valence and arousal, and up to date, no studies have examined this issue from a developmental perspective. In the present study, images that varied in valence and arousal were used as affective primes under optimal condition, and novel Chinese ideographs served as targets in the affective priming procedure. Participants from three age groups (9-, 13- and 19-year-olds) were asked to evaluate ideographs preceded by affective primes as beautiful or ugly. The results showed that both valence and arousal had significant effect on aesthetic preference in all three age groups. Respondents liked the most ideographs preceded by the positive stimuli, then ideographs preceded by neutral and negative stimuli, respectively. This effect was stronger for the older than for the younger respondents. On the other hand, the positive effect of arousal on aesthetic preference was enhanced when ideographs were preceded by the neutral stimuli, especially among younger respondents. These results suggest a complex interplay between valence and arousal in the aesthetic evaluation, as well as certain age-related specificities.

The Beauty Of Simulacra

Sonja Durajlija Zinic

There have been numerous reports, in various cultures, in the past and nowdays of the occasional perception of human or animal shapes or other motifs in random and vague stimuli of diverse origins (e.g. sky, rocks, trees, etc.). There are two famous quotes of the great Michelangelo Buonarotti that confirm his use of such simulacra in the creation of his artworks, the shorter of which is: 'I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free'. According to sceptic Shermer (1), who called it 'patternicity', 'tendency to find meaningful patterns in both meaningful and meaningless noise' is evolutionarily advantageous for the human species. I will present here eight simulacra from stellar clouds, walls, furniture and an film, in which complex and detailed images of humans, animals and symbols of the heart can be perceived. In these examples, every part of the particular object is in the right place and in correct proportion to the other parts. The perceived simulacra are presented both in original, digitally processed and in drawn versions the aim being to investigate the richness and continuity of the details by which they are constituted, to discuss the origin of their aesthetic value and to contribute to a scientific and artistic study of the role of simulacra and 'patterniciity' in the generation of visual artworks in the past and present of art.
1.Michael Shermer (2011), The Believing Brain. Times Books.

Aesthetic experiences through the visual arts differ from real-life visual perception: Evidence from studies with fMRI

Sarita Silveira, Aline Lutz, Evgeny Gutyrchik and Ernst Pöppel

As much as neurofunctional processing of visual artworks may be exemplarily for visual perception in general, it is a specific case of visual information processing. Artworks may either represent the world in a naturalistic way or differ from habits of viewing. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of perceiving artworks we conducted two studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We could show that there are neurofunctional differences in observing art or non-art images if same objects are presented. This was indicated by a higher activation within the sensorimotor cortex during the perception of artworks. Even within the visual arts scenes that match potential expectations can be differentiated from such scenes that can never occur in real life, because they would violate physical laws. Looking at naturalistic paintings leads to a significantly higher activation in the visual cortex and in the precuneus. Humans apparently own a sensitive mechanism even for artistic representations of the visual world to separate the impossible from what potentially matches physical reality (Silveira et al., 2012, Perception, in press).

Evaluation of attractiveness and beauty in visual artworks - adaptation and Fourier statistics

Gregor Hayn-Leichsenring and Christoph Redies

We define face attractiveness as the physical allurement of the person depicted, and beauty as a pleasing composition of the image, in accord with philosophical theories. To investigate dependencies and differences between the two aesthetic features, we used face portraits by artists and asked participants to rate them according to their attractiveness and beauty. We found a highly significant correlation between the ratings of the two features. To probe the neural correlates of attractiveness and beauty perception, we studied adaptation to the two features. For faces photographs, adaptation to highly complex features such as age, gender and ethnicity has been reported previously. Here, we demonstrate highly significant adaptation effects on beauty and attractiveness in art portraits. Next, we asked whether the rating of beauty is correlated with spatial frequency (Fourier) properties that have been previously associated with aesthetic visual perception [Graham and Redies, 2010, Vision Research 50(16):1503-1509]. We found for abstract art that the slope of log-log plots of radially averaged (1d) Fourier power correlates with the beauty ratings. In conclusion, our study suggests that specific neural circuits mediate aesthetic perception in the human visual system and that beauty ratings correlate with higher-order statistical properties of abstract artworks.

How perception of ambiguous figures is affected by fixation and instruction

Priscilla Heard and Ayesha Pullen

Forty participants viewed seven ambiguous figures including duck-rabbit, E.G. Boring's young girl - old woman, and goose-hawk under different conditions while having their eye movements tracked and indicating what they were perceiving. Instructions to 'try to see' one of the two possible percepts led to that percept being perceived significantly more, and there was a tendency for fixations to cluster around focal features. Instructions to fixate a spot located on a specific part of the figure affected what was perceived. For some figures such as the duck-rabbit or goose-hawk perception flips to a different object which faces the opposite direction. Fixation on a spot to the side of the figure led to the perception of the figure where that side corresponded to its front. The data will be discussed in terms of object perception attention mechanisms that are both focal feature and whole object based.

WATERMARKED is an artwork that places words and repeats them within a varied landscape, eliciting different associations and meanings

Carol Laidler and Pat Jamieson

The source of the River Frome lies just outside Bristol. The river curves round in an arc and then flows towards the Avon at the heart of the city. As it enters the city's boundaries much of this little river has been covered over and culverted in concrete. In the process of mapping the physical and metaphorical course of the River Frome we have been walking upstream along its length, from where the river spills into the Floating Harbour, along its 20 mile course to its source. Stopping to flypost simple words that have differing resonances within their urban and rural settings, we have left a paper trail of words creating a textual map. We are interested in how encountering these words in the landscape alters the experience and perception of the landscape, and how the meaning of the word is changed by the context in which it is placed. The act of photography and exhibition adds another layer. Installed in an interior space the black and white photographs of the words in the landscape are not merely documentation.

Objects painted by Patrick Hughes defy the surfaces they are rendered on, creating multiple motion patterns on the same 3-D canvas

Thomas V. Papathomas and Joshua Dobias

Patrick Hughes invented reverspectives: 3-D surfaces (prisms, truncated pyramids, etc.) protruding from the wall with their smaller parts closer to the viewer and their large bases on the wall. Surfaces are painted with perspective scenes that compete against the real geometry, so as to make the physically closer parts appear further than physically distant parts. The depth inversion is accompanied by vivid illusory motion for a viewer who moves in front of them. The same scene can be painted on a surface that is the depth-opposite of the reverspective: it recedes into the wall, thus creating a scenery in forced perspective that appears stationary to a moving viewer. Finally, if we paint the same scene, viewed frontally, on a flat canvas, we obtain a conventional planar perspective; planar perspectives can be seen to turn with the viewer but their motion is not as vivid as that of reverspectives. We report on the perceived depth of reverse, forced and planar perspectives for three scaled sizes of the same scenery. Generally, observers overestimate the physical depth, with a tendency to perceive deeper scenes for forced perspectives. Patrick Hughes has constructed pieces that combine reverse, forced and planar perspective on a single 3-D surface and can be called “reversproperplanarspectives”: he uses cleverly slanted boundary lines that create alternate rows of objects in forced perspective - that appear stationary - and reverse perspective - that appear to move vividly; he also paints two objects in planar perspective - that appear to move slightly. The result is a strange combination of motion patterns that makes these reversproperplanarspectives a unique stimulus in which the painted objects defy the surface they are rendered on.